Literacy Classifications

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Below are the types of reading and writing. After you read these, look at the different pages of this site, and you will be able to see pictures of items and their classifications.

 Taylor, Dorsey-Gaines (1988) states:

(pgs. 125-189)

Instrumental Reading: This includes reading to gain information for meeting practical needs and for scheduling daily life.  Some examples are:  Directions on toys, labels, clocks, telephone numbers in address books, recipes, applications for food stamps, and etc.

News/Related ReadiRecreational Reading- reading for pleasure, leisure, or fun or in rng:  This category includes reading to gain information about third parties or distant events.  Some examples are:  newspaper items, news magazines, "Missing" flyers, national and state politics, and etc.

Confirmational Reading:  This includes reading to check or confirm facts or beliefs.  This is often from materials retrieved on special occasions.  Some examples are: wills, income tax forms, bills, birth certificates, passports, social security cards, food stamp certificates, and etc.

Social Interaction Reading:  This category includes types of reading to gain information pertinent to social relationships.  Some examples are: greeting cards, cartoons, letters, newspaper features, telephone messages, and etc.

Recreational Reading:  This includes reading during leisure time or in planning recreational events.  It also includes reading to maintain social relationships and making social plans.  Some examples are: comics, sports section of the newspaper, novels, movie ads, announcements of community meetings, and etc.

Critical and Educational Reading:  This category includes reading to increase abilities, discuss political, social, aesthetic, or religious knowledge.  It also includes reading for temporary entertainment or planning for a recreational event.

Sociahistorical Reading: This includes reading to explore a personal identity and/or a record of the family history.  Some examples are: Reading material that has personal significance to someone's everday life, saving the first writings of a child, saving cards, and etc.

Financial Reading: This includes reading concerning economic circumstances.  Some examples are: checking on the economy, reading ads, reading prices of cars, prices at the supermarket, and etc.

Environmental Reading: This is reading environmental print. Some examples are: signs on storefronts, road signs, billboards, and etc.

Instrumental Writing: This includes writing to meet needs in everyday life. Some examples are: writing schedules, calendar appointments, keeping telephone and address books, and etc.

Reinforcement Writing:  This includes writing used when someone could not orally communicate with someone else or a written message was needed for legal purposes.  Some examples are:  notes for tardiness at school, messages written to children, immunization, and etc.

Social and Interactional Writing:  This includes writing to give information that is needed for social relationships or parental responsibilities.  Some examples are: letters to family members, cards sent on special occasions, helping with homework assignments, and etc.

Memory Aids Writing:  This category includes memory aid for the writer and others.  Some examples are: grocery lists, notes in photo albums, recipes, reminder notes, school schedules, listing appointments, and etc.

Financial Types of Writing: This is writing to record numbers and amounts and purposes for spending, and for signatures.  Some examples are: Writing weekly and monthly budgets, filling out forms that require financial status, signatures on checks, and etc.

Public Record Writing: This is writing to announce upcoming events and to to record financial and policy decisions.  Some examples are: church bulletins, reports of a committee, and etc.

Expository Writing: This includes tasks brought home and often includes numbers.  Some examples are: college and school papers, writings on criminal law, annual business reports, and etc.

Autobiographical Writing: Writing to understand yourself or to share life with others.  Some examples are: journal letters to yourself, writing names of family members, writing names in different script, and etc.

Recreational Writing: Writing during leisure time for the enjoyment.  Some examples are: crossword puzzles, doodling, letters, and etc.

Creative Writing: Writing as a self-expression.  Some examples are: writing poetry, painting with children, and etc.

Educational Writing: This includes writing to educate yourself or writing to complete school assignments.  Some examples are: practicing shorthand, typing to increase speed or accuracy, writing term papers, and etc.

Work-Related Writing: This includes writing having to do with employment.  Some examples are: filling in job applications, preparing resumes, and etc.

Environmental Writing: This includes writing in public places for others to read.  Some examples are: designing or painting signs for stores and businesses and etc.